ADIPONECTINA Y REPRODUCCIÓN

Carlos Arturo Vivas Ramírez, Camilo Andrés Calderón Miranda, Edison Hernando Pulido

Resumen


Objetivo: Revisar la información acerca del papel de la adiponectina en la reproducción

 Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura en las bases de datos: PUBMED, COCHRANE, SCIENCE DIRECT y EBSCO; y los motores de búsqueda: OVID e HINARI, usando como palabras clave: ADIPONECTINA, REPRODUCCIÓN, FERTILIDAD. Se revisaron los artículos disponibles, publicados entre 2000 - 2011.

 Resultados: El Tejido adiposo secreta adipocinas que modulan diferentes mecanismos fisiológicos. La adiponectina es una de las más importantes, su concentración sérica se ve disminuida en la obesidad y aumentada con la pérdida de peso, su secreción es estimulada por la insulina y disminuida por el FNT α. La  adiponectina actúa a través de receptores presentes en diferentes tejidos corporales, destacándose el Sistema Nervioso Central y los órganos reproductivos; genera la activación de la vía del AMPK modulando la energía celular, la resistencia a la insulina, la producción hormonal en el eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-gonadal y la expresión de algunas proteínas importantes en el ciclo ovárico. La adiponectina podría desempeñar un papel importante en el Síndrome de Ovario Poliquístico, al encontrarse relacionada con el hiperandrogenismo, la resistencia a la insulina y la obesidad, características de esta patología.

 Conclusión: La adiponectina se ha asociado con funciones importantes a nivel del eje Hipotálamo-Hipófisis-Gonadal. Actúa como un sensor de energía celular y tiene un papel importante como regulador de la producción de hormonas implicadas en el ciclo ovárico. Sus cambios se han estudiado en   enfermedades endocrinas, tales como obesidad, resistencia a la insulina, hiperandrogenismo, anovulación, trastornos menstruales y Síndrome de Ovario Poliquístico.


Palabras clave


Obesidad, adiponectina, reproducción, síndrome de ovario poliquístico.

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Referencias


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