Aspectos genético-moleculares asociados con el desarrollo del carcinoma colorrectal

Mabel Elena Bohorquez Lozano, Ana Patricia Estrada F., Ángel Alexandro Criollo R., Rodrigo Prieto S., María Magdalena E. de Polanco, Luis Guillermo Carvajal C.

Resumen


El presente trabajo es el resultado de la revisión bibliográfica en PubMed y ScienceDirect, de 62 artículos, relacionados con aspectos genético-moleculares del carcinoma colorrectal (CCR). El CCR constituye un problema de salud pública, agravado en los países en desarrollo, porque la mayoría de los casos se diagnostican en estados avanzados, al punto que, en Colombia, los datos de mortalidad se asemejan a los de incidencia, lo cual no es común en los países desarrollados. En consecuencia, es importante implementar métodos de detección temprana, tratamientos efectivos y procedimientos genético-moleculares, para diferenciar los casos y ofrecer tratamientos de acuerdo con el perfil genético del paciente.  Se hace referencia a las pruebas moleculares de inestabilidad microsatelital e inmunohistoquimica para proteínas del grupo mismatch repear (MMR),  que por su alta sensibilidad y especificidad resultan indispensables para la clasificación y tamizaje del CCR y la discriminación del mismo, entre esporádico y hereditario.

Palabras clave


Cancer colorrectal; inestabilidad microsatelital; inestabilidad cromosómica; síndrome de Lynch

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Referencias


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