Background: There is suﬃcient evidence that the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in China is increasing rapidly. Results from the Fourth China National Health Services Survey (2008) show that compared to 2003, the prevalence of chronic diseases in China increased by 5%, while results from the Fifth National Health Services Survey (2013) showed an increase of 9% since 2008. As the world's most populous country and in the face of the rapid rise of non-communicable diseases, China lacks eﬀective measures to achieve signiﬁcant results on aspects of tobacco use, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, harmful alcohol use and other risk factors. Of more concern is that the Chinese health care model is still stuck in the "medical services" stage. The "therapy" of health care models not only cause China to experience high health costs - there is also a steady increase in adverse health outcomes, with a failure to timely and eﬀectively respond to the challenges of NCDs. Purpose: This article aims to analyze health care inputs and outputs since Chinese health care reform, and to provide a useful reference to improve Chinese future health care policies.