Physicochemical characterization of two cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) starches and flours

Angelica Sandoval Aldana, Alejandro Fernández Quintero


El almidón y la harina de yuca fueron obtenidos de raíces cultivadas en Colombia en dos condiciones ambientales específicas. Se evaluaron propiedades fisicoquímicas como tamaño y morfología del grano, contenido de amilosa, cristalinidad, propiedades térmicas y comportamiento al empastamiento. Las propiedades del almidón de yuca fueron altamente influenciadas por las condiciones ambientales durante el periodo de crecimiento de las raíces de yuca. El almidón extraído de las raíces de yuca cultivadas en una zona con temperatura promedio más alta presentó un tamaño de granulo más pequeño, mayor contenido de amilosa y mayor temperatura y entalpia de gelatinización, lo que está relacionado con una mayor temperatura de empastamiento y menor viscosidad.  Las harinas de yuca presentaron diferencias con los almidones estudiados como una menor entalpia de gelatinización medida por calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC), mayor temperatura de empastamiento y menor desarrollo de viscosidad máxima. Este comportamiento posiblemente esta influenciado por la presencia de otros componentes diferentes al almidón en la raíz de yuca fresca. 

Palabras clave

almidón, harina, yuca, DSC, rayos X, empastamiento

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